UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
|☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2021
|☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Name of Registrant; State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation; Address of Principal Executive Offices; and Telephone Number||IRS Employer Identification Number|
|001-41137||CONSTELLATION ENERGY CORPORATION||87-1210716|
(a Pennsylvania corporation)
1310 Point Street
Baltimore, Maryland 21231-3380
|333-85496||CONSTELLATION ENERGY GENERATION, LLC||23-3064219|
(a Pennsylvania limited liability company)
200 Exelon Way
Kennett Square, Pennsylvania 19348-2473
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|CONSTELLATION ENERGY CORPORATION:|
|Common Stock, without par value||CEG||The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
|Constellation Energy Corporation||Yes||☐||No||x|
|Constellation Energy Generation, LLC||Yes||☐||No||x|
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
|Constellation Energy Corporation||Yes||☐||No||x|
|Constellation Energy Generation, LLC||Yes||☐||No||x|
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
|Constellation Energy Corporation||Yes||☐||No||x|
|Constellation Energy Generation, LLC||Yes||x||No||☐|
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Constellation Energy Corporation||Large Accelerated Filer|
|Non-accelerated Filer||x||Smaller Reporting Company|
|Emerging Growth Company|
|Constellation Energy Generation, LLC||Large Accelerated Filer|
|Non-accelerated Filer||x||Smaller Reporting Company|
|Emerging Growth Company|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No x
Prior to the separation of registrants from Exelon Corporation on February 1, 2022, the registrants were wholly owned subsidiaries of Exelon Corporation. Consequently, there was no aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrants as of June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrants’ most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
The number of shares outstanding of each registrant’s common stock as of February 1, 2022 was as follows:
|Constellation Energy Corporation Common Stock, without par value||326,663,937 |
|Constellation Energy Generation, LLC||Not applicable|
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS|
|Constellation Energy Corporation and Related Entities|
|CEG Parent||Constellation Energy Corporation|
|Constellation||Constellation Energy Generation, LLC (formerly Exelon Generation Company, LLC)|
|Registrants||CEG Parent and Constellation, collectively|
|ComEd||Commonwealth Edison Company|
|PECO||PECO Energy Company|
|BGE||Baltimore Gas and Electric Company|
|Pepco Holdings or PHI||Pepco Holdings LLC (formerly Pepco Holdings, Inc.)|
|Pepco||Potomac Electric Power Company|
|DPL||Delmarva Power & Light Company|
|ACE||Atlantic City Electric Company|
|Antelope Valley||Antelope Valley Solar Ranch One|
|BSC||Exelon Business Services Company, LLC|
|CENG||Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC|
|CR||Constellation Renewables, LLC (formerly ExGen Renewables IV, LLC)|
|CRP||Constellation Renewables Partners, LLC (formerly ExGen Renewables Partners, LLC)|
|FitzPatrick||James A. FitzPatrick nuclear generating station|
|Ginna||R. E. Ginna nuclear generating station|
|NER||NewEnergy Receivables LLC|
|NMP||Nine Mile Point nuclear generating station|
|Pepco Energy Services or PES||Pepco Energy Services, Inc. and its subsidiaries|
|RPG||Renewable Power Generation, LLC|
|TMI||Three Mile Island nuclear facility|
|GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS|
|Other Terms and Abbreviations|
|AEC||Alternative Energy Credit that is issued for each megawatt hour of generation from a qualified alternative energy source|
|AESO||Alberta Electric Systems Operator|
|ARC||Asset Retirement Cost|
|ARO||Asset Retirement Obligation|
|ASA||Asset Sale Agreement|
|Bcf||Billion cubic feet|
|Brookfield Renewable||Brookfield Renewable Partners, L.P.|
|CAIDI||Customer Average Interruption Duration Index|
|CERCLA||Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended|
|C&I||Commercial and Industrial|
|Clean Air Act||Clean Air Act of 1963, as amended|
|Clean Energy Law||Illinois Public Act 102-0062 signed into law on September 15, 2021|
|Clean Water Act||Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972, as amended|
|CMC||Carbon Mitigation Credit|
|CODM||Chief Operating Decision Maker|
|CORe||Constellation Offsite Renewables|
|DCPSC||District of Columbia Public Service Commission|
|DEPSC||Delaware Public Service Commission|
|DOE||United States Department of Energy|
|DOEE||Department of Energy & Environment|
|DOJ||United States Department of Justice|
|DPP||Deferred Purchase Price|
|EDF||Electricite de France SA and its subsidiaries|
|EFEC||Emissions-Free Energy Certificate|
|EIMA||Energy Infrastructure Modernization Act (Illinois Senate Bill 1652 and Illinois House Bill 3036)|
|EPA||United States Environmental Protection Agency|
|ERCOT||Electric Reliability Council of Texas|
|ERISA||Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended|
|ESG||Environmental, Social, and Governance|
|FERC||Federal Energy Regulatory Commission|
|Form 10||Amendment Number 2 to our General Form for Registration of Securities on Form 10, filed with the SEC on December 20, 2021 and declared effective by the SEC on December 29, 2021, as supplemented by Exhibit 99.1 to our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022.|
|Former PECO Units||Limerick, Peach Bottom, and Salem nuclear generating units|
|Former ComEd Units||Braidwood, Byron, Dresden, LaSalle and Quad Cities nuclear generating units|
|FRCC||Florida Reliability Coordinating Council|
|FRR||Fixed Resource Requirement|
|GAAP||Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States|
|ICC||Illinois Commerce Commission|
|IPA||Illinois Power Agency|
|IRC||Internal Revenue Code|
|IRS||Internal Revenue Service|
|ISO||Independent System Operator|
|ISO-NE||ISO New England Inc.|
|LIBOR||London Interbank Offered Rate|
|LIPA||Long Island Power Authority|
|LLRW||Low-Level Radioactive Waste|
|LTIP||Long-Term Incentive Plan|
|MATS||U.S. EPA Mercury and Air Toxics Standards|
|MDE||Maryland Department of the Environment|
|MDPSC||Maryland Public Service Commission|
|MISO||Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.|
|MOPR||Minimum Offer Price Rule|
|MPSC||Missouri Public Service Commission|
|NAV||Net Asset Value|
|NDT||Nuclear Decommissioning Trust|
|NEIL||Nuclear Electric Insurance Limited|
|NERC||North American Electric Reliability Corporation|
|NGX||Natural Gas Exchange, Inc.|
|NJDEP||New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection|
|Non-Regulatory Agreement Units||Nuclear generating units or portions thereof whose decommissioning-related activities are not subject to contractual elimination under regulatory accounting|
|NOSA||Nuclear Operating Services Agreement|
|NPDES||National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System|
|NPNS||Normal Purchase Normal Sale scope exception|
|NRC||Nuclear Regulatory Commission|
|NWPA||Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982|
|NYISO||New York ISO|
|NYMEX||New York Mercantile Exchange|
|NYPSC||New York Public Service Commission|
|OPEB||Other Postretirement Employee Benefits|
|PA DEP||Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection|
|PAPUC||Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission|
|PCAOB||Public Company Accounting Oversight Board|
|PG&E||Pacific Gas and Electric Company|
|PJM||PJM Interconnection, LLC|
|PPA||Power Purchase Agreement|
|PP&E||Property, Plant, and Equipment|
|Price-Anderson Act||Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act of 1957|
|PRP||Potentially Responsible Parties|
|PSDAR||Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report|
|PSEG||Public Service Enterprise Group Incorporated|
|PUCT||Public Utility Commission of Texas|
|RCRA||Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended|
|REC||Renewable Energy Credit which is issued for each megawatt hour of generation from a qualified renewable energy source|
|Regulatory Agreement Units||Nuclear generating units or portions thereof whose decommissioning-related activities are subject to contractual elimination under regulatory accounting|
|RFP||Request for Proposal|
|RGGI||Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative|
|RIN||Renewable Identification Number|
|RMC||Risk Management Committee|
|RNF||Revenue Net of Purchased Power and Fuel Expense|
|ROE||Return on equity|
|RPS||Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards|
|RTO||Regional Transmission Organization|
|S&P||Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services|
|SAIFI||System Average Interruption Frequency Index|
|SEC||United States Securities and Exchange Commission|
|SERC||SERC Reliability Corporation (formerly Southeast Electric Reliability Council)|
|SNF||Spent Nuclear Fuel|
|SOFR||Secured Overnight Financing Rate|
|SOS||Standard Offer Service|
|SPP||Southwest Power Pool|
|STEM||Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics|
U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit
|United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|
|VIE||Variable Interest Entity|
|WECC||Western Electric Coordinating Council|
|ZEC||Zero Emission Credit|
|ZES||Zero Emission Standard|
This combined Annual Report on Form 10-K is being filed separately by Constellation Energy Corporation and Constellation Energy Generation, LLC, (Registrants). Information contained herein relating to any individual Registrant is filed by the Registrant on its own behalf.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This Report contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Words such as “could,” “may,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “will,” “targets,” “goals,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “predicts,” and variations on such words, and similar expressions that reflect our current views with respect to future events and operational, economic and financial performance, are intended to identify such forward-looking statements.
The factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements made by us include those factors discussed herein, including those factors discussed in (a) Part I, ITEM 1A. Risk Factors, (b) Part II, ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, (c) Part II, ITEM 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data: Note 19, Commitments and Contingencies, and (d) other factors discussed in filings with the SEC. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this Report. None of the Registrants undertakes any obligation to publicly release any revision to its forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Report.
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
The SEC maintains an Internet site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information that we file electronically with the SEC. These documents are also available to the public from commercial document retrieval services and our website at www.ConstellationEnergy.com. Information contained on our website shall not be deemed incorporated into, or to be a part of, this Report.
On February 21, 2021, the board of directors of Exelon Corporation (“Exelon”) authorized management to pursue a plan to separate its competitive generation and customer-facing energy businesses, conducted through Constellation Energy Generation, LLC (“Constellation”, formerly Exelon Generation Company, LLC) and its subsidiaries, into an independent, publicly traded company. Constellation Energy Corporation (“CEG Parent” or the “Company”), a Pennsylvania corporation and a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Exelon, was newly formed for the purpose of separation and had not engaged in any activities except in preparation for the distribution. On February 1, 2022, Exelon completed the separation by distributing all the outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock, on a pro rata basis to the holders of Exelon’s common stock, with the Company holding all the interests in Constellation previously held by Exelon. As of 2002, Constellation has been an individual registrant since the registration of their public debt securities under the Securities Act. As an individual registrant, Constellation has historically filed consolidated financial statements to reflect their financial position and operating results as a stand-alone, wholly owned subsidiary of Exelon. The consolidated financial information presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for 2021 represents twelve months of information for Constellation.
References in this report to "we," "our," "us" and "the Company" are to Constellation and/or its subsidiaries, as apparent in the context. See Glossary for defined terms.
We are America’s leading clean energy company, based on the production of carbon-free electricity. We are the largest supplier of clean energy and sustainable solutions to homes, businesses, governments, community aggregations and a range of wholesale customers (such as municipalities, cooperatives, and other strategics) across the continental U.S., backed by approximately 32,400 megawatts of generating capacity consisting of nuclear, wind, solar, natural gas and hydroelectric assets. We produced nearly 10% of the nation's carbon-free energy (based on generation output of electricity) based on published reports on energy delivery by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, making us an important partner to businesses and state and local governments that are setting ambitious carbon-reduction goals and seeking long-term solutions to the climate crisis. We operate in 48 states, Canada and now employ approximately 12,700 people after separation.
We are differentiated by owning the cleanest generation fleet in the country. We are committed to a clean energy future, and we believe our generation fleet is essential to helping meet clean energy targets, at both the state and national level. We are uniquely positioned through the pairing of our clean energy fleet with our customer-facing business. Our customer-facing business is one of the nation's largest competitive energy suppliers, offering innovative options along the sustainability continuum to meet customer clean energy and climate goals.
We operate the largest carbon-free generation fleet in the nation and are one of the largest competitive electric generation companies in the country, as measured by owned and contracted MW. Collectively, the combined fleet is nearly 90% carbon-free (based on generation output of electricity) and is the fourth largest generation portfolio in the U.S. in terms of total generation with meaningful geographic diversity.
At December 31, 2021, our generating resources consisted of the following:
|Type of Capacity||MW|
Owned generation assets(a)
|Natural gas and oil||8,819 |
|Owned generation assets||32,400 |
|Total generating resources||36,502 |
(a)Net generation capacity is stated at proportionate ownership share. See ITEM 2. PROPERTIES for additional information.
(b)Includes wind, hydroelectric, and solar generating assets.
(c)Electric supply procured under unit-specific agreements.
The following map illustrates the locations of our generation facilities as of December 31, 2021:
The Company's Generation Fleet Map(a)
Nuclear Wind Gas/Other Solar Hydro Other Renewables
(a)Note: One symbol is included per location. Some locations may have multiple generating units. Locations in tight geographic proximity may appear as one symbol. Units that are not currently operational are not captured.
(b)Does not reflect Grand Prairie Generating Station (Gas/other), located in Alberta, Canada.
We have five reportable segments, as described in the table below, representing the different geographical areas in which our owned generating resources are located, and our customer-facing activities are conducted.
Net Generation Capacity (MW)(a)
|% of Net Generation Capacity||Geographical Area|
|Mid-Atlantic||10,508 ||32 ||%||Eastern half of PJM, which includes New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Delaware, the District of Columbia, and parts of Pennsylvania and North Carolina|
|Midwest||11,898 ||37 ||%||Western half of PJM and the United States footprint of MISO, excluding MISO’s Southern Region|
|New York||3,093 ||10 ||%||NYISO|
|ERCOT||3,610 ||11 ||%||Electric Reliability Council of Texas|
|Other Power Regions||3,291 ||10 ||%||New England, South, West, and Canada|
|Total||32,400 ||100 ||%|
(a)Net generation capacity is stated at proportionate ownership share as of December 31, 2021. See ITEM 2. PROPERTIES for additional information.
The following table shows sources of electric supply in GWh for 2021 and 2020:
|Source of Electric Supply|
|174,987 ||175,085 |
|Purchases — non-trading portfolio||67,605 ||79,972 |
|Natural gas and oil||19,960 ||19,501 |
|6,577 ||7,052 |
|Total Supply||269,129 ||281,610 |
(a)Includes the proportionate share of output where we have an undivided ownership interest in jointly-owned generating plants and includes the total output of plans that are fully consolidated.
(b)Includes wind, hydroelectric, solar, and biomass generating assets.
Our nuclear fleet is the nation’s largest with current generating capacity of approximately 21 gigawatts; it produced 175 terawatt hours of zero-emissions electricity during 2021 – enough to power 14.9 million homes and avoid more than 124 million metric tons of carbon emissions according to the US EPA GHG Equivalencies Calculator. We have ownership interests in 13 nuclear generating stations currently in service, consisting of 23 units. As of December 31, 2021, we wholly own all our nuclear generating stations, except for undivided ownership interests in four jointly owned nuclear stations: Quad Cities (75% ownership), Peach Bottom (50% ownership), Salem (42.59% ownership), and Nine Mile Point Unit 2 (82% ownership), which are consolidated in our financial statements relative to our proportionate ownership interest in each unit. See ITEM 2. PROPERTIES for additional information on our nuclear facilities.
On August 6, 2021, Constellation and EDF entered into a settlement agreement pursuant to which we, through a wholly owned subsidiary, purchased EDF’s equity interest in CENG, a joint venture with EDF, which wholly owns the Calvert Cliffs and Ginna nuclear stations and Nine Mile Point Unit 1, in addition to the 82% undivided ownership interest in Nine Mile Point Unit 2. Prior to August 6, 2021, we had a 50.01% membership interest in CENG, however CENG is consolidated within our results for all periods presented. See Note 2 — Mergers, Acquisitions, and Dispositions and Note 21 — Variable Interest Entities of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the acquisition of EDF's equity interest in CENG and the CENG consolidation.
We operate all of these nuclear generating stations, except for the two units at Salem, which are operated by PSEG Nuclear, LLC (an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of PSEG), and we have consistently operated our nuclear plants at best-in-class levels. During 2021, 2020, and 2019, our nuclear generating facilities achieved capacity factors(a) of 94.5%, 95.4%, and 95.7%, respectively, at ownership percentage. More broadly, the nuclear capacity factor has been approximately four percentage points better than the industry average annually since 2013.
Capacity factors, which are significantly affected by the number and duration of refueling and non-refueling outages, can have a significant impact on our results of operations. In 2021, we achieved an average refueling outage duration of 22 days for units we operate. During 2020, and 2019, we achieved an average refueling outage duration of 22 days and 21 days against an industry average of 34 and 36 days, respectively.
We manage our scheduled refueling outages to minimize their duration and to maintain high nuclear generating capacity factors, resulting in a stable generation base for our wholesale and retail power marketing activities. In 2021, 2020, and 2019 electric supply (in GWh) generated from our nuclear generating facilities was 65%, 62%, and 64%, respectively, of our total electric supply, which also includes natural gas, oil, and renewable generation and electric supply purchased for resale. See ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS for additional information on electric supply sources.
During scheduled refueling outages, we perform maintenance and equipment upgrades in order to maintain safe, reliable operations and to minimize the occurrence of unplanned outages. In addition to the maintenance and equipment upgrades performed by us during scheduled refueling outages, we have extensive operating and security procedures in place to ensure the safe operation of our nuclear units. We also have extensive safety systems in place to protect the plant, personnel, and surrounding area in the unlikely event of an accident or other incident.
We have original 40-year operating licenses from the NRC for each of our nuclear units and have received 20-year operating license renewals from the NRC for all our nuclear units except Clinton. PSEG has received 20-year operating license renewals for Salem Units 1 and 2. Peach Bottom has received a second 20-year license renewal from the NRC, for a total 80-year term, for Units 2 and 3.
(a)Capacity factor is defined as the ratio of the actual output of a plant over a period of time to its output if the plant had operated at full average annual mean capacity for that time period. See ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS for additional information.
The following table summarizes the current license expiration dates for our nuclear facilities currently in service:
|Calvert Cliffs||1 ||1975||2034|
|Nine Mile Point||1 ||1969||2029|
|Peach Bottom||2 ||1974||2053|
|Quad Cities||1 ||1973||2032|
(a)Denotes year in which nuclear unit began commercial operations.
(b)Although timing has been delayed, we currently plan to seek license renewal for Clinton and have received a Timely Renewal Exemption from the NRC that allows for the license renewal application to be filed in the first quarter of 2024.
The operating license renewal process takes approximately four to five years from the commencement of the process, which includes approximately two years for us to develop the application and approximately two additional years for the NRC to review the application. Depreciation provisions are based on the estimated useful lives of the stations, which correspond with the term of the NRC operating licenses denoted in the table above as of December 31, 2021. From August 27, 2020 through September 15, 2021, Byron and Dresden depreciation provisions were accelerated to reflect the previously announced shutdown dates of September 2021 and November 2021, respectively. On September 15, 2021, we updated the estimated useful lives for both facilities to reflect the end of the current NRC operating license for each unit consistent with the table above. See Note 3 — Regulatory Matters and Note 7 — Early Plant Retirements of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on Byron and Dresden and the Illinois CMC program.
The TMI nuclear station located in Middletown, Pennsylvania, permanently ceased generation operations on September 20, 2019. The Oyster Creek nuclear station located in Forked River, New Jersey, which permanently ceased generation operations on September 17, 2018, was sold to Holtec International (Holtec) on July 1, 2019. See Note 2 — Mergers, Acquisitions, and Dispositions and Note 7 — Early Plant Retirements of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the disposition of Oyster Creek and the retirement of TMI.
Natural Gas, Oil and Renewable Facilities (including Hydroelectric)
We operate approximately 12 gigawatts of natural gas, oil, hydroelectric, wind, and solar generation assets, which provide a mix of baseload, intermediate, and peak power generation. We wholly own all our natural gas, oil and renewable generating stations, except for: (1) Wyman; (2) certain wind project entities; and (3) CRP, which is owned 49% by another owner. We operate all of these facilities, except for Wyman, which is operated by the principal owner, NextEra Energy Resources LLC, a subsidiary of NextEra Energy, Inc. See ITEM 2. PROPERTIES for additional information regarding these generating facilities and Note 21 — Variable Interest Entities of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding CRP, which is a VIE.
In 2021, 2020, and 2019, electric supply (in GWh) generated from our owned natural gas, oil, and renewable generating facilities was 10%, 9%, and 11%, respectively, of our total electric supply. Much of this output was dispatched to support our wholesale and retail power marketing activities. Our natural gas, oil and renewable fleet has similarly demonstrated a track record of strong performance with a power dispatch match(a) of 72.4%, 98.4%, and 97.9% and renewables energy capture(b) of 95.7%, 93.4%, and 96.3% in 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. Our power dispatch match performance in 2021 was significantly impacted by the February 2021 extreme weather event in Texas, refer to Note 3 — Regulatory Matters for additional information.
Natural gas, oil, wind and solar generation plants are generally not licensed, and, therefore, the decision on when to retire plants is, fundamentally, a commercial one. FERC has the exclusive authority to license most non-Federal hydropower projects located on navigable waterways or Federal lands, or connected to the interstate electric grid, which include our Conowingo Hydroelectric Project (Conowingo) and Muddy Run Pumped Storage Facility Project (Muddy Run). Muddy Run's license expires on December 1, 2055 and Conowingo's on February 28, 2071. The stations are currently being depreciated over their estimated useful lives, which correspond with the available license terms. See Note 3 — Regulatory Matters of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on Conowingo.
On March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, we completed the sale of a significant portion of our solar business and our interest in the Albany Green Energy biomass facility, respectively. Note 2 — Mergers, Acquisitions, and Dispositions for additional information on these dispositions.
(a)Dispatch Match is used to measure the responsiveness of a unit to the market, expressed as the actual energy relative to the total desired energy. Desired energy is measured by revenues less purchased power and fuel costs when unit is dispatched by us or the RTO.
(b)Energy capture is an indicator of how efficiently the installed assets capture the natural energy available from the wind and the sun. Energy capture represents an energy-based fraction, the numerator of which is the energy produced by the sum of the wind turbines/solar panels in the year, and the denominator of which is the total expected energy to be produced during the year. Energy capture for the combined wind and solar fleet is weighted by the relative site projected pre-tax variable revenue, with deductions made for certain events that are non-controllable, such as force majeure events and transmission curtailments.
In addition to energy produced by owned generation assets, we source electricity from plants we do not own under long-term contracts. The following tables summarize our long-term contracts to purchase unit-specific physical power with an original term in excess of one year in duration, by region, in effect as of December 31, 2021:
|7 ||2022 - 2032||176 |
|Midwest||3 ||2026 - 2032||351 |
|New York||4 ||2022||26 |
|ERCOT||5 ||2022 - 2035||864 |
|Other Power Regions||12 ||2022 - 2033||2,685 |
|Total||31 ||4,102 |
|Capacity Expiring (MW)||1,084 ||114 ||101 ||490 ||398 ||1,915 ||4,102 |
We are one of the nation’s largest energy suppliers, through our integrated business operations we sell electricity, natural gas, and other energy related products and solutions to various types of customers, including distribution utilities, municipalities, cooperatives, and commercial, industrial, governmental, and residential customers in competitive markets across multiple geographic regions. We serve approximately 2 million total customers, including approximately 217,000 commercial, industrial, and public sector customers, including three-fourths of Fortune 100 companies, and about 1.6 million unique residential customers. We also have a non-commodity element of our customer facing business, providing sustainability, efficiency and technology solutions to offer a comprehensive suite of energy solutions to meet customers’ growing and evolving needs.
We are a leader in electric power supply, serving 205 TWhs in 2021 through sales to retail customers and wholesale load auctions to a diverse geographic customer base. The following table illustrates these volumes across our five reportable segments:
2021 Electric Power Supply (TWhs) Served Across Regions(a)
(a)Includes retail load and wholesale load auction volumes only. Electric generation in excess of our total retail and wholesale load would be marketed to the respective ISO in which our facility is located. Other includes New England, South & West.
We are active in all domestic wholesale power and gas markets that span the entire lower 48 states and have complementary retail activity across many of those states. We largely obtain physical power supply from our owned and contracted generation in multiple geographic regions. The commodity risks associated with the output from owned and contracted generation are managed using various commodity transactions including sales to customers and our ratable hedging program. See further discussion of the ratable hedging program in the Price and Supply Risk Management section below. The main objective is to obtain low-cost energy supply to meet physical delivery obligations to both our wholesale and retail customers.
Our wholesale channel-to-market involves the sale of electricity among electric utilities and electricity marketers before it is eventually sold to end-use consumers. In 2021, we served approximately 65 TWhs of power load across competitive utility load procurements and bilateral sales to municipalities, co-ops, banks, and other wholesale entities. Complementary to our national portfolio, we have several decades of relationships with wholesale counterparties across all domestic power markets as a means of both monetizing our own generation, as well as sourcing contracted generation to meet customer and portfolio needs. With the increased trend toward customer demand for sustainability, this ability to source contracted generation has provided a capital-light way for us to provide customers with the renewable products they are demanding to support a cleaner energy ecosystem. This creates durable customer relationships and repeatable business through the ability to respond to customer and marketplace trends. Similarly, this contracting acumen provides the ability to supplement our native generation with other non-renewable assets to meet changing portfolio needs in a financially efficient manner. In our wholesale gas business we participate across all parts of the gas value chain, including trading, transport and storage and physical supply.
Retail competition in states across the U.S. range from full competition of generation suppliers for all retail customers (commercial, industrial and residential) to partial retail competition available up to a capped amount for industrial customers only. We are a leader in retail markets, serving approximately 140 TWhs of electric power load and 800 Bcf of gas in 2021, primarily to commercial and industrial ("C&I") customers across multiple geographic regions in the U.S.
Constellation Retail has a Diverse Geographic Footprint
Strong customer relationships are a key part of our customer-facing business strategy, as demonstrated by our high retention rates. Retail customer retention rates have been strong over the last five years across C&I power customer groups, with average contract terms of approximately 25 months and customer duration of more than six years, with many customers well beyond these metrics. Specifically, we enjoyed a 80% C&I power customer renewal rate and a 89% C&I gas customer retention rate in 2021, consistent with the previous four years, owing to both our competitive pricing as well as our strong customer relationships. Our consistently high renewal rates are driven by our ability to provide customized solutions and deliver focused attention to our customers’ needs, resulting in industry-leading customer satisfaction. We are also successful at acquiring new customers by offering diverse innovative services and products that meet their needs. In addition to our high customer renewal rates, we have experienced consistent high new win rates for C&I power as well, acquiring nearly one out of every three new customers who have chosen to shop with us over the past three years.
High customer satisfaction levels, market expertise, stability and scale drive growth and result in historically proven business consistency and margins. While providing customers with the best possible price is a key focus, we leverage our broad suite of electric and gas product structures, oftentimes customized, to provide customers with the commodity solution and information that best fits their needs. It is this attention to the customer that creates the durable, repeatable value highlighted in these statistics.
Consumer purchasing strategies have trended from direct supply relationships to third-party relationships with a growing number of customers looking to third-party consultants and brokers to find suppliers like us to reduce costs and evaluate the increasing number of options available for expanding energy solutions beyond the commodity. In response, we have expanded our third-party capabilities, created scale through a comprehensive support structure, and enhanced digital applications providing tools, tracking and measurement as well as the ability to extend the reach of our sustainability services and products to drive additional market share. While this trend of customers using third-parties to find suppliers has slowed in recent years, we have remained the market leader in direct sales with over 45% of the commercial and industrial market share of direct customer business driven by our highly experienced and long tenor direct sales team.
As one of the largest customer-facing platforms in the U.S., we benefit from significant economies of scale, which allow us to provide our customers with competitively priced energy and to structure highly tailored solutions targeted to a customer’s unique power needs and clean energy goals. We partner with our customers to provide options along the sustainability continuum, including, renewable, efficiency and technology applications to meet their carbon-free energy goals. Our energy efficiency products provide the ability to optimize performance and maximize efficiency across customer facilities and operations through contract structures that include implementation of energy efficiency upgrades with no upfront capital requirements. Additionally, these services provide scalable solutions to meet sustainability goals through investment across the life of the facility or operations and allow for budget certainty. The ongoing ability to optimize energy consumption for customers allows us to support customer demands with the right combination of technology and efficiency program options.
For example, our CORe product serves C&I customers' sustainability needs by matching contracted, third-party renewable generation with customer desire to add additional carbon free generation to the grid (additionality) and geographic preference. In addition to larger-scale CORe offerings, we offer a range of sustainability attribute solutions to customers (RECs, EFECs, RINs, RNG, carbon offsets, etc.) to support their energy needs during the transition to a cleaner energy ecosystem.
Pear.ai is our smart utility expense management platform that helps customers proactively manage utility costs, understand trends, and develop strategies to optimize spend and drive sustainability objectives. Pear.ai provides new avenues for incremental growth by coupling the opportunities for customer usage optimization with accompanying products and solutions that we can provide to customers. Services like Pear.ai allow us to grow our customer base in previously inaccessible regulated markets through the offering of non-commodity energy products.
Our Constellation Technology Ventures’ commercialization team invests in and collaborates with portfolio companies to deploy products and technologies across our broad customer base to drive value for both us and portfolio companies. Portfolio company solutions have included EV and charging infrastructure, sustainability monitoring and reporting tools, distributed energy resources and financing solutions, a web-based energy marketplace, and more.
Price and Supply Risk Management
We use a combination of wholesale and retail customer load sales, as well as non-derivative and derivative contracts, using both over-the-counter and exchange-traded instruments, including options, swaps, and forward and futures contracts, all with credit-approved counterparties, to hedge the price risk of the generation portfolio. For merchant revenues not already hedged via comprehensive state programs, such as the CMC in Illinois, we utilize a three-year ratable sales plan to align our hedging strategy with our financial objectives. The prompt three-year merchant revenues are hedged on an approximate rolling 90%/60%/30% basis, providing cash flow stability for our investors while still allowing commercial opportunities to generate value for the enterprise. We may also enter transactions that are outside of this ratable hedging program. We are exposed to commodity price risk in 2022 and beyond for portions of our electricity portfolio that are unhedged. As of December 31, 2021, the
percentage of expected generation hedged for the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, New York, and ERCOT reportable segments is 92%-95% and 73%-76% for 2022 and 2023, respectively. Similarly, the scale and scope of the portfolio provides risk-mitigating technology, product, and geographical diversification. We will continue to be proactive in using hedging strategies to mitigate commodity price volatility.
The percentage of expected generation hedged is the number of equivalent sales divided by the expected generation. Expected generation is the volume of energy that best represents our commodity position in energy markets from owned or contracted generation based on a simulated dispatch model that makes assumptions regarding future market conditions, which are calibrated to market quotes for power, fuel, load following products, and options. Equivalent sales represent all wholesale and retail load sales, as well as hedging products, which include economic hedges and certain non-derivative contracts. A portion of our hedging strategy may be implemented using fuel products based on assumed correlations between power and fuel prices. Our risk management group monitors the financial risks of the wholesale and retail power marketing activities. We also use financial and commodity contracts for proprietary trading purposes, but this activity accounts for only a small portion of our efforts. The proprietary trading portfolio is subject to a risk management policy that includes stringent risk management limits. See ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK for additional information.
The cycle of production and utilization of nuclear fuel includes the mining and milling of uranium ore into uranium concentrates, the conversion of uranium concentrates to uranium hexafluoride, the enrichment of the uranium hexafluoride, and the fabrication of fuel assemblies. Nuclear fuel assemblies are obtained predominantly through long-term uranium concentrate supply contracts, contracted conversion services, contracted enrichment services, or a combination thereof, and contracted fuel fabrication services. We have inventory in various forms and do not anticipate difficulty in obtaining the necessary uranium concentrates or conversion, enrichment, or fabrication services to meet the nuclear fuel requirements of our nuclear units. We size our inventory holdings and forward contractual requirements to protect against supply disruptions and near-term price volatility, while mitigating concentration of risk with our suppliers and allowing for capital flexibility.
Natural gas is procured through long-term and short-term contracts, as well as spot-market purchases. Fuel oil inventories are managed so that in the winter months sufficient volumes of fuel are available in the event of extreme weather conditions and during the remaining months to take advantage of favorable market pricing.
See ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS, ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS, Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates and Note 16 — Derivative Financial Instruments of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding derivative financial instruments.
Our operations are affected by weather, which affects demand for electricity and natural gas, as well as operating conditions. The market price for electricity is also affected by changes in the demand for electricity and the available supply of electricity. With respect to the electric business, very warm weather in summer months and, with respect to the electric and natural gas businesses, very cold weather in winter months is referred to as “favorable weather conditions” because those weather conditions result in increased deliveries of electricity and natural gas. Conversely, mild weather reduces demand. As a result, our operating results in the future may fluctuate substantially on a seasonal basis, especially when more severe weather conditions such as heat waves or extreme winter weather make such fluctuations more pronounced. The pattern of this fluctuation may change depending on the type and location of the facilities owned, the retail load served and the terms of contracts to purchase or sell electricity. See ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK for additional information.
We are subject to liability, property damage, and other risks associated with major incidents at our generating stations. We have reduced our financial exposure to these risks through insurance, both property damage and liability, and other industry risk-sharing provisions. We also maintain business interruption insurance for our renewable projects, but not for our other generating stations unless required by contract or financing agreements. We are self-insured to the extent that any losses may exceed the amount of insurance maintained or are within the policy deductible for our insured losses.
For additional information regarding property insurance, see ITEM 2. PROPERTIES, Note 17 — Debt and Credit Agreements for additional information on financing agreements, and Note 19 — Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for insurance specific to our nuclear facilities.
We are a public utility as defined under the Federal Power Act and are subject to FERC’s exclusive ratemaking jurisdiction over wholesale sales of electricity and the transmission of electricity in interstate commerce. Under the Federal Power Act, FERC has the authority to grant or deny market-based rates for sales of energy, capacity, and ancillary services to ensure that such sales are just and reasonable. FERC’s jurisdiction over ratemaking includes the authority to suspend the market-based rates of utilities and set cost-based rates should FERC find that its previous grant of market-based rates authority is no longer just and reasonable. Other matters subject to FERC jurisdiction include, but are not limited to, third-party financings; review of mergers; dispositions of jurisdictional facilities and acquisitions of securities of another public utility or an existing operational generating facility; affiliate transactions; intercompany financings and cash management arrangements; certain internal corporate reorganizations; and certain holding company acquisitions of public utility and holding company securities.
RTOs and ISOs are FERC regulated entities that exist in several regions to provide transmission service across multiple transmission systems. FERC has approved PJM, MISO, ISO-NE, and SPP as RTOs and CAISO and NYISO as ISOs. These entities are responsible for regional planning, managing transmission congestion, developing wholesale markets for energy and capacity, maintaining reliability, market monitoring, the scheduling of physical power sales brokered through ICE and NYMEX, and the elimination or reduction of redundant transmission charges imposed by multiple transmission providers when wholesale customers take transmission service across several transmission systems. ERCOT is not subject to regulation by FERC but performs a similar function in Texas to that performed by RTOs in markets regulated by FERC.
We are subject to the jurisdiction of the NRC with respect to the operation of our nuclear generating facilities, including the licensing for operation of each unit. The NRC subjects nuclear generating stations to continuing review and regulation covering, among other things, operations, maintenance, emergency planning, security, and environmental and radiological aspects of those stations. As part of its reactor oversight process, the NRC continuously assesses unit performance indicators and inspection results and communicates its assessment on a semi-annual basis. All nuclear generating stations operated by us are categorized by the NRC in the Licensee Response Column, which is the highest of five performance bands. The NRC may modify, suspend, or revoke operating licenses and impose civil penalties for failure to comply with the Atomic Energy Act or the terms of the operating licenses. Changes in regulations by the NRC may require a substantial increase in capital expenditures and/or operating costs for our nuclear generating facilities. NRC regulations also require that licensees of nuclear generating facilities demonstrate reasonable assurance that funds will be available in specified minimum amounts at the end of the life of the facility to decommission the facility. The ultimate decommissioning obligation is expected to be funded by the NDT funds. See ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS Liquidity and Capital Resources; Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates, Nuclear Decommissioning Asset Retirement Obligations; and Note 3 — Regulatory Matters, Note 10 — Asset Retirement Obligations, and Note 18 — Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities of the Notes to Consolidated Financial statements for additional information regarding our NDT funds and decommissioning obligations.
Our operations are also subject to the jurisdiction of various other Federal, state, regional, and local agencies, and Federal and state environmental protection agencies. Additionally, we are subject to NERC mandatory reliability standards, which protect the nation’s bulk power system against potential disruptions from cyber and physical security breaches.
Constellation's Strategy and Outlook
We believe shareholder value is built on a foundation of operational excellence and the pairing of our majority carbon-free energy fleet with our customer facing platform. We are committed to maintaining investment grade credit ratings. We are focused on optimizing cash returns through a disciplined approach to safe and efficient operations and cost management, underpinned by stable and durable margins from our customer-facing
businesses and coupled with visible payments to our generation plants for the clean energy attributes. We may pursue future growth opportunities that provide additional value building on our core businesses, or expanding our competitive advantages. We are committed to maintaining a strong balance sheet, to returning value to our shareholders, and to investing in clean energy solutions.
As environmental sustainability continues to build momentum for businesses across the country, the demand for carbon-free and sustainability products increases. We are committed to a carbon-free energy future, and we aim to serve as a partner to businesses and the federal, state and local governments that are setting ambitious carbon-reduction goals and seeking long-term solutions to the climate crisis. For two decades, our predecessor company was a strong advocate for policies that would address the climate crisis. We will continue to be a leading advocate at the federal level and in our states for policies that will reduce GHG emissions and preserve and grow clean energy.
Building upon Exelon’s long-standing commitment to reducing our GHG emissions, we are committed to the following:
1.Achieving a generation portfolio mix with 100% of our owned generation carbon-free by 2040, including an interim goal of 95% carbon-free by 2030, subject to policy support and technology advancements
2.A 100% reduction of our operations-driven emissions by 2040, including an interim goal to reduce carbon emissions by 65% from 2020 levels by 2030 and reduce methane emissions 30% from 2020 by 2030, and
3.Providing 100% of C&I customers with specific information about their GHG impact.
Our business strategy is to maximize value for all our stakeholders, coupled with ESG principles that are integrated with and core to our strategy, through a particular emphasis on:
Carbon-Free Energy Advocacy. We will continue to work with policymakers to find solutions that drive decarbonization and provide value to customers.
Carbon-Free Energy & Climate Mitigation. We will continue to prioritize safety in operating our reliable, best in class, carbon-free, generation assets and growing the supply of clean power, fuels, and energy carriers including hydrogen that will be essential to fighting the climate crisis. We will mitigate the impacts of climate change on our business through adaptation and building resiliency in our supply chain through partnerships with our key suppliers to build a sustainable supply chain that delivers energy and quality products and services and responsibly manages waste. We will also partner with our key energy suppliers on their GHG emissions and climate adaptation strategies.
Clean Customer Transformation. Customers, including businesses and cities, are transforming to become more sustainable from energy supply to management. From products that supply clean power when they need it 24 hours a day to transformative solutions to integrate clean fuels, we will continue to innovate and develop new products to meet our customers’ needs.
Technology and Commercialization. We will partner with our customers, suppliers, universities, governments, national labs, and startups to support technology advancement through development, partnerships and commercialization pathways. We commit to help enable future technologies and business models needed to drive the clean energy economy to improve the health and welfare of communities through venture investing and R&D. We will target 25% of these investments to minority and women led businesses and will require investment recipients to disclose how they engage in equitable employment and contracting practices, using performance as a factor when considering investments.
Equity and Community Empowerment. We are committed to building a future in which all of our customers, employees, business partners, and communities benefit equitably from social, environmental and economic progress.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. Our commitment is an advantage in the fight against climate change, including a commitment to attract, retain, and develop a diverse, equitable workforce, promote an inclusive culture and extend diversity and inclusiveness throughout our value chain.
Governance and Ethics. We will build upon a strong compliance and risk management foundation from our predecessor company and recognize the critical role this serves in maximizing operational results. We will continue to manage cash flow volatility through prudent risk management strategies across our business.
We are committed to maintaining sufficient financial liquidity and an appropriate capital structure to support safe, secure and reliable operations, even in volatile market conditions. We believe our investment grade credit rating is a competitive advantage and we intend to maintain our credit position and best-in-class balance sheet. In line with that commitment, available cash flow will first be used to comfortably meet investment grade credit targets, with incremental capital allocated towards shareholder return and disciplined growth. We continually evaluate growth opportunities aligned with our businesses, assets and markets leveraging our expertise in those areas and offering sustainable returns. We may pursue growth opportunities that optimize our core business or expand upon our strengths, including, but not limited to the following:
•Opportunistic carbon-free energy acquisitions, particularly nuclear plants with supportive policy
•Create new value from the existing fleet through repowering, co-location and other opportunities
•Grow sustainability products and services for our customers focused on clean energy, efficiency, storage and electrification; help our C&I customers develop and meet sustainability targets
•Produce clean hydrogen using our carbon-free fleet
•Engagement with the technology and innovation ecosystem through continued partnerships with national labs, universities, startups, and research institutions
•Explore advanced nuclear technology for investment and participation via advisory services to maintain our leadership position as stewards of a carbon-free energy future
We will employ a disciplined approach to acquisitions that grow future cash flow and support strategic initiatives. We will also continue to evaluate asset and business divestitures to rationalize the portfolio and optimize cash proceeds.
Various market, financial, regulatory, legislative and operational factors could affect our success in pursuing these strategies. We continue to assess infrastructure, operational, policy, and legal solutions to these issues. See ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS for additional information.
The U.S. energy sector is experiencing unprecedented changes that we believe will increase the demand for reliable, clean power generation and benefit our business. We believe our generation fleet, including our nuclear assets, is well-positioned to deliver reliable, clean power and benefit from growing demand for carbon-free electricity. Key drivers of increased demand for clean energy include:
•Governmental and corporate policies designed to accelerate the decarbonization of the economy,
•Policy support for nuclear energy sources that also enable energy security, reliability and diversification,
•Rapid electrification of the U.S. economy; and
•Evolving customer preferences favoring clean energy, choice and digitization
Policy Support for Decarbonization and Emerging Carbon-Free Technologies. Driven by societal concerns about climate change, governments, corporations, and investors are increasingly advocating for the reduction of GHG emissions across all sectors of the economy, with reduction of GHG emissions by the energy sector being a key focus. Governments at the international, national and state levels have established or are currently contemplating increasingly stringent policies that require the reduction of GHG emissions over time. Corporations have also adopted targets to reduce the carbon emissions in their business operations, spurred in part by demand from investors and customers for sustainable, environment-friendly business practices. Emerging technologies like storage and hydrogen are also helping to advance decarbonization. We are committed to a clean energy future and we believe our business is well-positioned to benefit from growing policy support for
decarbonization as our generation fleet is essential to helping meet clean energy targets at both the state and federal levels.
Policy Support for Nuclear Energy. As decarbonization accelerates, we expect our generation fleet will play a critical role in meeting baseload power needs. Nuclear energy is currently the largest source of zero emissions electricity in the U.S., accounting for over 50% of the nation’s carbon-free power and our nuclear plants are meaningful contributors to the clean energy mix in the states in which they operate. Given the Biden Administration’s aggressive goals for reducing emissions within the electric power sector, policymakers have recognized the urgent need to prevent the retirement of nuclear power plants prior to the end of their licensed lives. Several states where our nuclear facilities operate have established policies to support nuclear generation, driven by factors that include recognition by governments and policy makers that existing nuclear generation facilities are essential to meeting policy objectives on reduction of GHG emissions, the desire to support jobs and regional economies, and the need to ensure reliability and security of the electrical grid through resource diversity. A 2018 study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “The Future of Nuclear Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World,” found that the costs of achieving transformational decarbonization targets would increase significantly without the contribution of nuclear power. As such, we plan to file applications to extend the licenses of our nuclear fleet to 80 years for our units that receive continued policy support for their long-term operation.
Electrification of the U.S Economy. The push to significantly reduce or eliminate GHG emissions could lead to acceleration of the electrification of the U.S. economy, including electrification of transportation, industrial operations, heating and cooling, and appliances, which could materially increase demand for electricity. We expect widespread electrification could result in U.S. electricity demand to nearly double from what it is today by 2050. Although EV sales in North America are well behind Europe and China, increased policy support from the Biden administration, together with an increasing number of EV offerings hitting the market over the next five years, will drive market share gains in the U.S. market. With over 90% of states offering incentives for setting up EV charging infrastructure, U.S. EV market sales are projected to rise to 6.9 million units by 2025. Electrification of industrial processes, commercial equipment and residential appliances that currently utilize gas and oil as a fuel source will also play a role in increasing the net demand for electricity. According to the International Energy Agency, heat makes up two-thirds of industrial energy demand, and almost one-fifth of global energy consumption, prompting efforts by energy companies and industrial manufacturers to electrify their thermal processes. For companies like us whose core competency is safely generating and serving electricity and related products to its customers, the increasing demand from electrification provides natural growth opportunities.
Evolving Customer Preferences. Consumers are increasingly purpose-driven and knowledgeable of services that drive decarbonization, leading them to value the ability to be connected to and trace the source of their clean energy choices. A third-party study found that 60% of consumers have become more aware of climate change since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, with more than half of consumers likely to invest and upgrade to energy efficiency programs. Growing awareness of climate change and green energy helps drive customer interest in value-add services and products around their energy usage, such as residential rooftop solar, EV charging, smart, energy-efficient home technologies, and the ability to choose 100 percent clean power 24 hours a day, 365 days a year in competitive retail energy markets. Continuing innovation in the digitization of the broader economy will facilitate greater control and opportunities for customers and businesses to more frequently engage with their energy providers and become more knowledgeable of their energy choices, including the products we provide.
Our employees are our greatest assets. We strive to create a workplace that is diverse, inclusive, innovative, and safe for our employees. In order to provide the services and products that our customers expect, we must create the best teams and these teams must reflect the diversity of the communities that we serve. Therefore, we strive to attract highly qualified and diverse talent and routinely review our hiring, development and promotion practices to ensure we maintain equitable and bias free processes.
We will continue to undertake extensive and periodic employee engagement surveys to help identify our successes and opportunities for growth. The survey results will be reviewed with senior management and our Board of Directors.
We provide our employees with growth opportunities, competitive compensation and benefits, and a variety of education and development programs. We are committed to helping employees advance their skills and careers largely through educational opportunities in technical, safety and business acumen areas, in addition to development through individual discussions and mentorship programs, as well as continuous feedback and evaluations. We understand that continued education leads to a more engaged, skilled and productive workforce and we support our employees in their educational endeavors in order to attract and retain people who are committed to personal and professional development by offering tuition reimbursement for approved higher education, certification or licensing courses.
Well-Being and Benefits
Our employees are encouraged to thrive outside the workplace as well. We provide a full suite of wellness benefits targeted at supporting work-life balance, physical, mental and financial health, and industry-leading paid leave policies. Considering the COVID-19 pandemic, our employees also received additional benefits including 100% coverage of all in-network medical expenses associated with COVID-19 testing and treatment through June 2021, paid time off to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, and extended back-up child and elder care bene